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We collect references of influenza and influenza virus research and classify them into the following research categories.

  1. Influenza Introduction
  2. Large-scale Sequencing
  3. Protein Structure
  4. Avian Influenza
    1. Pathogenicity
    2. Transmission
      1. H5N1 virus
      2. H9N2 virus
      3. H7 viruses
    3. Molecular Determinants
      1. HA
      2. PB2
      3. NS1
      4. other gene products
  5. Spanish Influenza
  6. Other Influenza

  •   Influenza Introduction
  • 1. Olsen, B., Munster, V.J., Wallensten, A., Waldenstrom, J., Osterhaus, A.D. and Fouchier, R.A. (2006) Global patterns of influenza a virus in wild birds. Science, 312, 384-388.

    2. Horimoto, T. and Kawaoka, Y. (2005) Influenza: lessons from past pandemics, warnings from current incidents. Nat Rev Microbiol, 3, 591-600.

    3. Steinhauer, D.A. and Skehel, J.J. (2002) Genetics of influenza viruses. Annu Rev Genet, 36, 305-332.

    4. Cox, N.J. and Subbarao, K. (2000) Global epidemiology of influenza: past and present. Annu Rev Med, 51, 407-421.

    5. Webster, R.G., Bean, W.J., Gorman, O.T., Chambers, T.M. and Kawaoka, Y. (1992) Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. Microbiol Rev, 56, 152-179.

  •   Large-scale Sequencing
  • 1. Obenauer, J.C., Denson, J., Mehta, P.K., Su, X., Mukatira, S., Finkelstein, D.B., Xu, X., Wang, J., Ma, J., Fan, Y. et al. (2006) Large-scale sequence analysis of avian influenza isolates. Science, 311, 1576-1580.

    2. Ghedin, E., Sengamalay, N.A., Shumway, M., Zaborsky, J., Feldblyum, T., Subbu, V., Spiro, D.J., Sitz, J., Koo, H., Bolotov, P. et al. (2005) Large-scale sequencing of human influenza reveals the dynamic nature of viral genome evolution. Nature, 437, 1162-1166.

  •   Protein Structure
  • 1. Stevens, J., Blixt, O., Tumpey, T.M., Taubenberger, J.K., Paulson, J.C. and Wilson, I.A. (2006) Structure and receptor specificity of the hemagglutinin from an H5N1 influenza virus. Science, 312, 404-410.

    2. Stevens, J., Corper, A.L., Basler, C.F., Taubenberger, J.K., Palese, P. and Wilson, I.A. (2004) Structure of the uncleaved human H1 hemagglutinin from the extinct 1918 influenza virus. Science, 303, 1866-1870.

    3. Gamblin, S.J., Haire, L.F., Russell, R.J., Stevens, D.J., Xiao, B., Ha, Y., Vasisht, N., Steinhauer, D.A., Daniels, R.S., Elliot, A. et al. (2004) The structure and receptor binding properties of the 1918 influenza hemagglutinin. Science, 303, 1838-1842.

    4. Akarsu, H., Burmeister, W.P., Petosa, C., Petit, I., Muller, C.W., Ruigrok, R.W. and Baudin, F. (2003) Crystal structure of the M1 protein-binding domain of the influenza A virus nuclear export protein (NEP/NS2). Embo J, 22, 4646-4655.

    5. Liu, J., Lynch, P.A., Chien, C.Y., Montelione, G.T., Krug, R.M. and Berman, H.M. (1997) Crystal structure of the unique RNA-binding domain of the influenza virus NS1 protein. Nat Struct Biol, 4, 896-899.

    6. Varghese, J.N., Epa, V.C. and Colman, P.M. (1995) Three-dimensional structure of the complex of 4-guanidino-Neu5Ac2en and influenza virus neuraminidase. Protein Sci, 4, 1081-1087.

    7. Bizebard, T., Gigant, B., Rigolet, P., Rasmussen, B., Diat, O., Bosecke, P., Wharton, S.A., Skehel, J.J. and Knossow, M. (1995) Structure of influenza virus haemagglutinin complexed with a neutralizing antibody. Nature, 376, 92-94.

    8. Bossart-Whitaker, P., Carson, M., Babu, Y.S., Smith, C.D., Laver, W.G. and Air, G.M. (1993) Three-dimensional structure of influenza A N9 neuraminidase and its complex with the inhibitor 2-deoxy 2,3-dehydro-N-acetyl neuraminic acid. J Mol Biol, 232, 1069-1083.

    9. Burmeister, W.P., Henrissat, B., Bosso, C., Cusack, S. and Ruigrok, R.W. (1993) Influenza B virus neuraminidase can synthesize its own inhibitor. Structure, 1, 19-26.

    10. Nuss, J.M., Whitaker, P.B. and Air, G.M. (1993) Identification of critical contact residues in the NC41 epitope of a subtype N9 influenza virus neuraminidase. Proteins, 15, 121-132.

    11. Weis, W.I., Brunger, A.T., Skehel, J.J. and Wiley, D.C. (1990) Refinement of the influenza virus hemagglutinin by simulated annealing. J Mol Biol, 212, 737-761.

    12. Caton, A.J., Brownlee, G.G., Yewdell, J.W. and Gerhard, W. (1982) The antigenic structure of the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin (H1 subtype). Cell, 31, 417-427.

  •   Avian Influenza

  •    Pathogenicity

  • 1. Suarez, D.L., Senne, D.A., Banks, J., Brown, I.H., Essen, S.C., Lee, C.W., Manvell, R.J., Mathieu-Benson, C., Moreno, V., Pedersen, J.C. et al. (2004) Recombination resulting in virulence shift in avian influenza outbreak, Chile. Emerg Infect Dis, 10, 693-699.

    2. Hirst, M., Astell, C.R., Griffith, M., Coughlin, S.M., Moksa, M., Zeng, T., Smailus, D.E., Holt, R.A., Jones, S., Marra, M.A. et al. (2004) Novel avian influenza H7N3 strain outbreak, British Columbia. Emerg Infect Dis, 10, 2192-2195.

    3. Murakami, M., Towatari, T., Ohuchi, M., Shiota, M., Akao, M., Okumura, Y., Parry, M.A. and Kido, H. (2001) Mini-plasmin found in the epithelial cells of bronchioles triggers infection by broad-spectrum influenza A viruses and Sendai virus. Eur J Biochem, 268, 2847-2855.

    4. Banks, J., Speidel, E.S., Moore, E., Plowright, L., Piccirillo, A., Capua, I., Cordioli, P., Fioretti, A. and Alexander, D.J. (2001) Changes in the haemagglutinin and the neuraminidase genes prior to the emergence of highly pathogenic H7N1 avian influenza viruses in Italy. Arch Virol, 146, 963-973.

    5. Garcia, M., Crawford, J.M., Latimer, J.W., Rivera-Cruz, E. and Perdue, M.L. (1996) Heterogeneity in the haemagglutinin gene and emergence of the highly pathogenic phenotype among recent H5N2 avian influenza viruses from Mexico. J Gen Virol, 77 ( Pt 7), 1493-1504.

    6. Horimoto, T., Rivera, E., Pearson, J., Senne, D., Krauss, S., Kawaoka, Y. and Webster, R.G. (1995) Origin and molecular changes associated with emergence of a highly pathogenic H5N2 influenza virus in Mexico. Virology, 213, 223-230.

    7. Horimoto, T., Nakayama, K., Smeekens, S.P. and Kawaoka, Y. (1994) Proprotein-processing endoproteases PC6 and furin both activate hemagglutinin of virulent avian influenza viruses. J Virol, 68, 6074-6078.

    8. Horimoto, T. and Kawaoka, Y. (1994) Reverse genetics provides direct evidence for a correlation of hemagglutinin cleavability and virulence of an avian influenza A virus. J Virol, 68, 3120-3128.

    9. Stieneke-Grober, A., Vey, M., Angliker, H., Shaw, E., Thomas, G., Roberts, C., Klenk, H.D. and Garten, W. (1992) Influenza virus hemagglutinin with multibasic cleavage site is activated by furin, a subtilisin-like endoprotease. Embo J, 11, 2407-2414.

    10. Stieneke-Grober, A., Vey, M., Angliker, H., Shaw, E., Thomas, G., Roberts, C., Klenk, H.D. and Garten, W. (1992) Influenza virus hemagglutinin with multibasic cleavage site is activated by furin, a subtilisin-like endoprotease. Embo J, 11, 2407-2414.

    11. Kido, H., Yokogoshi, Y., Sakai, K., Tashiro, M., Kishino, Y., Fukutomi, A. and Katunuma, N. (1992) Isolation and characterization of a novel trypsin-like protease found in rat bronchiolar epithelial Clara cells. A possible activator of the viral fusion glycoprotein. J Biol Chem, 267, 13573-13579.

    12. Gotoh, B., Ogasawara, T., Toyoda, T., Inocencio, N.M., Hamaguchi, M. and Nagai, Y. (1990) An endoprotease homologous to the blood clotting factor X as a determinant of viral tropism in chick embryo. Embo J, 9, 4189-4195.

    13. Kawaoka, Y. and Webster, R.G. (1988) Sequence requirements for cleavage activation of influenza virus hemagglutinin expressed in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 85, 324-328.

    14. Webster, R.G. and Rott, R. (1987) Influenza virus A pathogenicity: the pivotal role of hemagglutinin. Cell, 50, 665-666.

    15. White, J., Kartenbeck, J. and Helenius, A. (1982) Membrane fusion activity of influenza virus. Embo J, 1, 217-222.

  •    Transmission

  • H5N1 virus

    1. Normile, D. (2006) Virology. Genomic analysis hints at H5N1 pathogenicity. Science, 311, 457.

    2. Chen, H., Smith, G.J., Li, K.S., Wang, J., Fan, X.H., Rayner, J.M., Vijaykrishna, D., Zhang, J.X., Zhang, L.J., Guo, C.T. et al. (2006) Establishment of multiple sublineages of H5N1 influenza virus in Asia: implications for pandemic control. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103, 2845-2850.

    3. Amonsin, A., Payungporn, S., Theamboonlers, A., Thanawongnuwech, R., Suradhat, S., Pariyothorn, N., Tantilertcharoen, R., Damrongwantanapokin, S., Buranathai, C., Chaisingh, A. et al. (2006) Genetic characterization of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated from zoo tigers in Thailand. Virology, 344, 480-491.

    4. (2006) From the front lines. H5N1 flu virus continues to sweep across the globe. Nature, 440, 726-727.

    5. Liu, J., Xiao, H., Lei, F., Zhu, Q., Qin, K., Zhang, X.W., Zhang, X.L., Zhao, D., Wang, G., Feng, Y. et al. (2005) Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in migratory birds. Science, 309, 1206.

    6. Lee, C.W., Suarez, D.L., Tumpey, T.M., Sung, H.W., Kwon, Y.K., Lee, Y.J., Choi, J.G., Joh, S.J., Kim, M.C., Lee, E.K. et al. (2005) Characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses isolated from South Korea. J Virol, 79, 3692-3702.

    7. Chen, H., Smith, G.J., Zhang, S.Y., Qin, K., Wang, J., Li, K.S., Webster, R.G., Peiris, J.S. and Guan, Y. (2005) Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature, 436, 191-192.

    8. Viseshakul, N., Thanawongnuwech, R., Amonsin, A., Suradhat, S., Payungporn, S., Keawchareon, J., Oraveerakul, K., Wongyanin, P., Plitkul, S., Theamboonlers, A. et al. (2004) The genome sequence analysis of H5N1 avian influenza A virus isolated from the outbreak among poultry populations in Thailand. Virology, 328, 169-176.

    9. Li, K.S., Guan, Y., Wang, J., Smith, G.J., Xu, K.M., Duan, L., Rahardjo, A.P., Puthavathana, P., Buranathai, C., Nguyen, T.D. et al. (2004) Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia. Nature, 430, 209-213.

    10. Chen, H., Deng, G., Li, Z., Tian, G., Li, Y., Jiao, P., Zhang, L., Liu, Z., Webster, R.G. and Yu, K. (2004) The evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in ducks in southern China. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 10452-10457.

    11. Xu, X., Subbarao, Cox, N.J. and Guo, Y. (1999) Genetic characterization of the pathogenic influenza A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus: similarity of its hemagglutinin gene to those of H5N1 viruses from the 1997 outbreaks in Hong Kong. Virology, 261, 15-19.

    12. Yuen, K.Y., Chan, P.K., Peiris, M., Tsang, D.N., Que, T.L., Shortridge, K.F., Cheung, P.T., To, W.K., Ho, E.T., Sung, R. et al. (1998) Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. Lancet, 351, 467-471.

    13. Subbarao, K., Klimov, A., Katz, J., Regnery, H., Lim, W., Hall, H., Perdue, M., Swayne, D., Bender, C., Huang, J. et al. (1998) Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness. Science, 279, 393-396.

    14. Claas, E.C., Osterhaus, A.D., van Beek, R., De Jong, J.C., Rimmelzwaan, G.F., Senne, D.A., Krauss, S., Shortridge, K.F. and Webster, R.G. (1998) Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Lancet, 351, 472-477.

    15. de Jong, J.C., Claas, E.C., Osterhaus, A.D., Webster, R.G. and Lim, W.L. (1997) A pandemic warning? Nature, 389, 554.

    H9N2 virus

    1. Choi, Y.K., Ozaki, H., Webby, R.J., Webster, R.G., Peiris, J.S., Poon, L., Butt, C., Leung, Y.H. and Guan, Y. (2004) Continuing evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses in Southeastern China. J Virol, 78, 8609-8614.

    2. Lin, Y.P., Shaw, M., Gregory, V., Cameron, K., Lim, W., Klimov, A., Subbarao, K., Guan, Y., Krauss, S., Shortridge, K. et al. (2000) Avian-to-human transmission of H9N2 subtype influenza A viruses: relationship between H9N2 and H5N1 human isolates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 9654-9658.

    3. Guo, Y.J., Krauss, S., Senne, D.A., Mo, I.P., Lo, K.S., Xiong, X.P., Norwood, M., Shortridge, K.F., Webster, R.G. and Guan, Y. (2000) Characterization of the pathogenicity of members of the newly established H9N2 influenza virus lineages in Asia. Virology, 267, 279-288.

    4. Peiris, M., Yuen, K.Y., Leung, C.W., Chan, K.H., Ip, P.L., Lai, R.W., Orr, W.K. and Shortridge, K.F. (1999) Human infection with influenza H9N2. Lancet, 354, 916-917.

    H7 viruses

    1. Fouchier, R.A., Schneeberger, P.M., Rozendaal, F.W., Broekman, J.M., Kemink, S.A., Munster, V., Kuiken, T., Rimmelzwaan, G.F., Schutten, M., Van Doornum, G.J. et al. (2004) Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 1356-1361.

    2. Koopmans, M., Wilbrink, B., Conyn, M., Natrop, G., van der Nat, H., Vennema, H., Meijer, A., van Steenbergen, J., Fouchier, R., Osterhaus, A. et al. (2004) Transmission of H7N7 avian influenza A virus to human beings during a large outbreak in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands. Lancet, 363, 587-593.

    3. van Kolfschooten, F. (2003) Dutch veterinarian becomes first victim of avian influenza. Lancet, 361, 1444.

    4. Banks, J., Speidel, E. and Alexander, D.J. (1998) Characterisation of an avian influenza A virus isolated from a human--is an intermediate host necessary for the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses? Arch Virol, 143, 781-787.

    5. Kurtz, J., Manvell, R.J. and Banks, J. (1996) Avian influenza virus isolated from a woman with conjunctivitis. Lancet, 348, 901-902.

    6. Webster, R.G., Geraci, J., Petursson, G. and Skirnisson, K. (1981) Conjunctivitis in human beings caused by influenza A virus of seals. N Engl J Med, 304, 911.

    7. Taylor, H.R. and Turner, A.J. (1977) A case report of fowl plague keratoconjunctivitis. Br J Ophthalmol, 61, 86-88.

    8. Campbell, C.H., Webster, R.G. and Breese, S.S., Jr. (1970) Fowl plague virus from man. J Infect Dis, 122, 513-516.

  •    Molecular Determinants

  • HA

    1. Harvey, R., Martin, A.C., Zambon, M. and Barclay, W.S. (2004) Restrictions to the adaptation of influenza a virus h5 hemagglutinin to the human host. J Virol, 78, 502-507.

    2. Matrosovich, M.N., Matrosovich, T.Y., Gray, T., Roberts, N.A. and Klenk, H.D. (2004) Human and avian influenza viruses target different cell types in cultures of human airway epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101, 4620-4624.

    3. Ito, T. and Kawaoka, Y. (2000) Host-range barrier of influenza A viruses. Vet Microbiol, 74, 71-75.

    4. Matrosovich, M., Tuzikov, A., Bovin, N., Gambaryan, A., Klimov, A., Castrucci, M.R., Donatelli, I. and Kawaoka, Y. (2000) Early alterations of the receptor-binding properties of H1, H2, and H3 avian influenza virus hemagglutinins after their introduction into mammals. J Virol, 74, 8502-8512.

    5. Skehel, J.J. and Wiley, D.C. (2000) Receptor binding and membrane fusion in virus entry: the influenza hemagglutinin. Annu Rev Biochem, 69, 531-569.

    6. Matrosovich, M., Zhou, N., Kawaoka, Y. and Webster, R. (1999) The surface glycoproteins of H5 influenza viruses isolated from humans, chickens, and wild aquatic birds have distinguishable properties. J Virol, 73, 1146-1155.

    7. Ito, T., Couceiro, J.N., Kelm, S., Baum, L.G., Krauss, S., Castrucci, M.R., Donatelli, I., Kida, H., Paulson, J.C., Webster, R.G. et al. (1998) Molecular basis for the generation in pigs of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. J Virol, 72, 7367-7373.

    8. Connor, R.J., Kawaoka, Y., Webster, R.G. and Paulson, J.C. (1994) Receptor specificity in human, avian, and equine H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates. Virology, 205, 17-23.

    9. Rogers, G.N. and D'Souza, B.L. (1989) Receptor binding properties of human and animal H1 influenza virus isolates. Virology, 173, 317-322.


    1. Shinya, K., Hamm, S., Hatta, M., Ito, H., Ito, T. and Kawaoka, Y. (2004) PB2 amino acid at position 627 affects replicative efficiency, but not cell tropism, of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza A viruses in mice. Virology, 320, 258-266.

    2. Gao, P., Watanabe, S., Ito, T., Goto, H., Wells, K., McGregor, M., Cooley, A.J. and Kawaoka, Y. (1999) Biological heterogeneity, including systemic replication in mice, of H5N1 influenza A virus isolates from humans in Hong Kong. J Virol, 73, 3184-3189.

    3. Lu, X., Tumpey, T.M., Morken, T., Zaki, S.R., Cox, N.J. and Katz, J.M. (1999) A mouse model for the evaluation of pathogenesis and immunity to influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from humans. J Virol, 73, 5903-5911.

    4. Subbarao, E.K., London, W. and Murphy, B.R. (1993) A single amino acid in the PB2 gene of influenza A virus is a determinant of host range. J Virol, 67, 1761-1764.

    5. Clements, M.L., Subbarao, E.K., Fries, L.F., Karron, R.A., London, W.T. and Murphy, B.R. (1992) Use of single-gene reassortant viruses to study the role of avian influenza A virus genes in attenuation of wild-type human influenza A virus for squirrel monkeys and adult human volunteers. J Clin Microbiol, 30, 655-662.


    1. Seo, S.H., Hoffmann, E. and Webster, R.G. (2004) The NS1 gene of H5N1 influenza viruses circumvents the host anti-viral cytokine responses. Virus Res, 103, 107-113.

    2. Krug, R.M., Yuan, W., Noah, D.L. and Latham, A.G. (2003) Intracellular warfare between human influenza viruses and human cells: the roles of the viral NS1 protein. Virology, 309, 181-189.

    3. Geiss, G.K., Salvatore, M., Tumpey, T.M., Carter, V.S., Wang, X., Basler, C.F., Taubenberger, J.K., Bumgarner, R.E., Palese, P., Katze, M.G. et al. (2002) Cellular transcriptional profiling in influenza A virus-infected lung epithelial cells: the role of the nonstructural NS1 protein in the evasion of the host innate defense and its potential contribution to pandemic influenza. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99, 10736-10741.

    4. Seo, S.H., Hoffmann, E. and Webster, R.G. (2002) Lethal H5N1 influenza viruses escape host anti-viral cytokine responses. Nat Med, 8, 950-954.

    5. Garcia-Sastre, A., Egorov, A., Matassov, D., Brandt, S., Levy, D.E., Durbin, J.E., Palese, P. and Muster, T. (1998) Influenza A virus lacking the NS1 gene replicates in interferon-deficient systems. Virology, 252, 324-330.

    Other Gene Products

    1. Katz, J.M., Lu, X., Tumpey, T.M., Smith, C.B., Shaw, M.W. and Subbarao, K. (2000) Molecular correlates of influenza A H5N1 virus pathogenesis in mice. J Virol, 74, 10807-10810.

    2. Zhou, N.N., Shortridge, K.F., Claas, E.C., Krauss, S.L. and Webster, R.G. (1999) Rapid evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in chickens in Hong Kong. J Virol, 73, 3366-3374.

    3. Snyder, M.H., Buckler-White, A.J., London, W.T., Tierney, E.L. and Murphy, B.R. (1987) The avian influenza virus nucleoprotein gene and a specific constellation of avian and human virus polymerase genes each specify attenuation of avian-human influenza A/Pintail/79 reassortant viruses for monkeys. J Virol, 61, 2857-2863.

    4. Deshpande, K.L., Naeve, C.W. and Webster, R.G. (1985) The neuraminidases of the virulent and avirulent A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/83 (H5N2) influenza A viruses: sequence and antigenic analyses. Virology, 147, 49-60.

  •   Spanish Influenza
  • 1. Tumpey, T.M., Basler, C.F., Aguilar, P.V., Zeng, H., Solorzano, A., Swayne, D.E., Cox, N.J., Katz, J.M., Taubenberger, J.K., Palese, P. et al. (2005) Characterization of the reconstructed 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic virus. Science, 310, 77-80.

    2. Taubenberger, J.K., Reid, A.H., Lourens, R.M., Wang, R., Jin, G. and Fanning, T.G. (2005) Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes. Nature, 437, 889-893.

    3. Gamblin, S.J., Haire, L.F., Russell, R.J., Stevens, D.J., Xiao, B., Ha, Y., Vasisht, N., Steinhauer, D.A., Daniels, R.S., Elliot, A. et al. (2004) The structure and receptor binding properties of the 1918 influenza hemagglutinin. Science, 303, 1838-1842.

    4. Reid, A.H., Taubenberger, J.K. and Fanning, T.G. (2004) Evidence of an absence: the genetic origins of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus. Nat Rev Microbiol, 2, 909-914.

    5. Reid, A.H., Fanning, T.G., Janczewski, T.A., Lourens, R.M. and Taubenberger, J.K. (2004) Novel origin of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus nucleoprotein gene. J Virol, 78, 12462-12470.

    6. Reid, A.H., Fanning, T.G., Janczewski, T.A., McCall, S. and Taubenberger, J.K. (2002) Characterization of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus matrix gene segment. J Virol, 76, 10717-10723.

    7. Basler, C.F., Reid, A.H., Dybing, J.K., Janczewski, T.A., Fanning, T.G., Zheng, H., Salvatore, M., Perdue, M.L., Swayne, D.E., Garcia-Sastre, A. et al. (2001) Sequence of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus nonstructural gene (NS) segment and characterization of recombinant viruses bearing the 1918 NS genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 2746-2751.

    8. Reid, A.H., Fanning, T.G., Janczewski, T.A. and Taubenberger, J.K. (2000) Characterization of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus neuraminidase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97, 6785-6790.

    9. Reid, A.H., Fanning, T.G., Hultin, J.V. and Taubenberger, J.K. (1999) Origin and evolution of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus hemagglutinin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 96, 1651-1656.

    10. Taubenberger, J.K., Reid, A.H., Krafft, A.E., Bijwaard, K.E. and Fanning, T.G. (1997) Initial genetic characterization of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus. Science, 275, 1793-1796.

  •   Other Influenza
  • 1. Zhou, N.N., Senne, D.A., Landgraf, J.S., Swenson, S.L., Erickson, G., Rossow, K., Liu, L., Yoon, K., Krauss, S. and Webster, R.G. (1999) Genetic reassortment of avian, swine, and human influenza A viruses in American pigs. J Virol, 73, 8851-8856.

    2. Kawaoka, Y., Krauss, S. and Webster, R.G. (1989) Avian-to-human transmission of the PB1 gene of influenza A viruses in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. J Virol, 63, 4603-4608.

    3. Scholtissek, C., Rohde, W., Von Hoyningen, V. and Rott, R. (1978) On the origin of the human influenza virus subtypes H2N2 and H3N2. Virology, 87, 13-20.

    4. Nakajima, K., Desselberger, U. and Palese, P. (1978) Recent human influenza A (H1N1) viruses are closely related genetically to strains isolated in 1950. Nature, 274, 334-339.

    IVDB is supported by institutional grant from Beijing Institute of Genomics, CAS  Feedback